A negative vote option is the right to express disapproval.

NEGATIVE.VOTE is an Independent expenditure organization aligned with Independent voters. It advocates publicly on behalf of voters that do not affiliate with either major political party. As part of that advocacy, it will attempt to bypass the two-party system and put the question directly to voters via ballot initiative in every state.

Ballot question: Should voters get a “NO” vote to cast AGAINST our least-preferred candidate in any given election – to register a more precise measure of voter sentiment?



The idea for a negative vote in the modern era can be  traced to George A.W. Boehm, who was a published author, mathematician and avid bridge player. In 1973, he wrote a paper, “One fervent vote against Wintergreen,” a reference to a fictional character that was able to capture the White House despite being a bumbling idiot and a crook. Boehm delivered his paper to some of the world’s most renowned developers of game-theory economics (who were on their death beds by then). Since that time, various global mathematics professors have built and published robust models to prove George A.W. Boehm’s original theory. Those models confirm that, furnished with a negative vote, voters could curb the influence of extremists on both sides of the political spectrum and empower the middle-minded, moderate majority.
Sam Chang is a global ambassador for a negative vote. A graduate of Harvard A.B. cum laude and the Wharton School of Business, Chang had a distinguished career in the private sector, working 40+ years across the globe for some of the most recognizable names in Financial Services, leading teams through numerous high-profile mergers & acquisitions. Chang serves on the Board of Directors of several private and public companies. While working in The Middle East in 2011-2012, he encountered the political strife between Israel and Palestinians. A student of meditation, he emptied his mind of everything he knew about the region. During one of his visits to Israel, Chang independently produced the idea that if voters had the option to vote NO, it could reduce the influence of extremists. In essence, he self-discovered the root cause and source of negative politics is a positive vote system, where voters are forced to artificially boost the influence of one type of politician since they cannot vote against another type. Immediately, he also knew the remedy. For more positive politics, people need a negative vote (the right to vote “NO” for their least-preferred candidate on the extremes of the political spectrum). Ever since, Sam has worked tirelessly with many collaborators to deliver the truth of his vision to democracies in the U.S. and beyond. A U.S. citizen, Mr. Chang has three adult children living in the U.S., and he splits his time between the U.S. and Taiwan, his country of birth.
“Paul” may be America’s premier thought leader, architect, and authority on electoral system reform. Over the past decade, he has written numerous journals on the limitations of our current electoral system, including Ranked-Choice Voting (RCV). He has elaborately designed multiple alternatives. They include Balanced Plurality Voting (BPV), the technical term for adding a negative vote, as well as a few derivatives of  Balanced Approval Voting (BAV), a next-generation set of more sophisticated voting models that allow a voter to indicate approval and disapproval of each candidate in a given race to maximize the true voice of the people. Each is elegantly designed to free the nation’s citizens from the shackles of our current dilemma. Represented in the photo above by Paul Newman’s character, “Cool Hand Luke,” Paul also recognizes the explosive and revolutionary potential of his works, so he prefers to remain anonymous for the sake of his own privacy. “Paul” lives in America’s rural northeast region of the country.
Jess Brewer is the team’s designated skeptic – a valuable role on any team. He gravitates to that role naturally as a trained physicist with a B.S, M.A. and Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley. A professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver,BC., Dr. Brewer’s research has spanned the globe including collaborations with V.G. Storchak of Kurchatov Institute in Moscow to Toyota Central R & D Labs., Inc. in Nagoya-shi, Japan. Brewer has also conducted sample experiments since 2013 to discern whether, given a choice, voters would prefer to vote FOR their preferred candidate “OR” AGAINST their least-preferred candidate. Preliminary results are illuminating: often a voter’s primary motivation is to prevent his/her least-preferred candidate from prevailing. Dr. Brewer has dual citizenship between his residency in California and Vancouver, B.C.
Mike Shannon is a lifelong resident of Illinois and a graduate of the University of Illinois. He has a 20+ year private-sector career in business process performance – where he routinely conducts root cause analyses on process failures. Mike has been an advocate of political reform since working as a staffer for a few statewide campaigns in the 1990s. In 2006, Shannon launched his own protest candidacy – without accepting any campaign donations – in order to draw attention to the practice of gerrymandering, a process where legislators draw their own legislative districts to limit competition and to guarantee victory year-after-year for one party or the other. In 2016, many voters explained that they didn’t want to vote for Donald Trump, but it was their only way to vote against Hillary Clinton (or vice-versa). That’s when Mike had the same idea that Sam Chang had produced five years earlier: voters were asking for a ‘NO’ vote! After proving the concept in the experimental elections with friends, Mike started his positive campaign for NEGATIVE.VOTE. Mr. Shannon is a volunteer member of Unite America and lives in the northwest suburbs of Chicago.
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